The African Academy of Sciences (AAS) is a pan-African organisation headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, that recognises individuals who have reached the highest level of excellence in their field of expertise and have made contributions to the advancement of the field in the continent. These individuals are recognised on merit and designated as Fellows of the Academy. 

Currently, there is an ongoing global effort to apply genomic science and associated technologies to further the understanding of health and disease in different populations, and, in particular, to identify individuals and populations who are at risk, due to genetic and/or environmental factors, for developing a specific disease. Possible outcomes of such research include